Children with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND) are adversely affected by negative attitudes and perceptions of difference including forms of discrimination which often involves bullying.
A 2007 Mencap survey found that eight out of 10 respondents had been bullied and six out of 10 had been physically hurt.
While children and young people with SEND have many skills and talents, they also have a wide range of very different needs. Because of the complexity of these needs, it is harder for them to learn or access education or build the same friendships and relationships than most children of the same age, leaving them vulnerable to isolation and social exclusion.
What is bullying involving children with special educational needs and disabilities?
It is probably more helpful to use the anti-bullying alliance easy-to-read definition of bullying when dealing with bullying and SEND because for all children with SEN and disabilities, discrimination based on their needs can be a constant challenge.
People doing nasty or unkind things to you on purpose, more than once, which it is difficult to stop.
What distinguishes bullying involving special educational needs and disabilities?
Some children and young people may not recognise bullying behaviour; that they are being bullied, that their own behaviour may be seen by someone else as bullying, or that they are being provocative and therefore inflaming bullying situations - here work with bystanders and ongoing proactive work will be most productive.
Some children and young people may have difficulty remembering things so it may be necessary to act very quickly while the child or young person can remember what bullying took place.
It may be harder to resist bullies as they may already be more isolated, not have many friends and not understand that what is happening is bullying.
They may have specific difficulties telling people about bullying or reporting it; staff need to provide extra support including the need for staff to carefully check their understanding for example many children with autism are assumed to understand much more than they do in social situations.
SEN and disability needs should be addressed with a whole school anti-bullying policy which reflects the duties established through the Equality Act 2010 and provides a consistent ethos and framework that challenges prejudice and sets out agreed standards on behaviour. It is also important to recognise that all children and young people are potentially vulnerable to bullying and that children and young people with SEN and disabilities may be bullied for a range of other reasons.
Responsive work can only be effective if all children and young people, parents and staff understand what is meant by bullying and there is no ‘one size fits all’ approach when supporting children and young people with a range of needs who experience bullying. Selecting the right approach needs sensitivity and awareness of the strengths of the individual or individuals involved. Knowledge of the child's or young person's particular needs and the impact on their social development is essential. In other cases, allowances may need to be made because a child or young person demonstrates anti-social behaviour but did not intend to bully.
Moving between settings for children and young people who use a mix of special and mainstream provision, bullying can be a particular concern as they are repeatedly changing in and out of different environments. These moves can be one off or regular and often lead to children being exposed to new people and environments which can be daunting. All of these transfers require preparation and support and may make children and young people vulnerable to bullying if not handled with care. Children and young people with SEN and disabilities report that where they are seen as outsiders they are more at risk. Their safety can rely on bystander support and proactive strategies already in place.
Where children and young people with SEN and disabilities are concerned, communication across the staff team is essential; about the individuals’ needs and the extent to which a child or young person's SEN and disability may lead them to bully others or display disruptive behaviour. Staff also need to be alert to changes in children and young peoples' behaviour and make sure they understand the cause, including if it is due to factors not related to their SEN or disability.
The special educational needs coordinator (SENCO) has a particular role to play in ensuring the well-being of children and young people with SEN and disabilities. As well as being champions of inclusion, SENCOs can:
- encourage staff training in disability equality and raise awareness of the disability equality duties
- contribute to policy development and review and enable the participation of disabled children in consultations
- ensure learners with SEN and disabilities who are bullied receive support and help in preventing and dealing with it
- monitor the impact of anti-bullying interventions on individual children and young people with SEN and disabilities
- ensure children and young people with social and behavioural needs receive appropriate support to prevent bullying behaviour where needed.
All SEND bullying incidents should be recorded in your bullying incident log. We have produced a behaviour incident form for reporting prejudice-related bullying incidents.
The use of verbal abuse as a form of bullying of disabled children and young people is widespread. This has a significant negative impact on self-esteem and achievement. To challenge it requires a consistent whole school approach involving staff, pupils, parents and carers. All members of the school community need to be equipped to always challenge and explain why such language is unacceptable.
The ABA have produced the following resources to tackle disablist language:
- 10 tips to tackle disablist language based bullying in school: a guide for staff
- challenging bullying and harassment of disabled people in class: a resource for teachers
- tackling disablist language based bullying in school: a teacher's guide
- use of disablist language - handout.
Resources for schools
The Anti-Bullying Alliance has written a guide based on the views of children and young people, who receive support from teaching assistants, about bullying. It is designed to give teaching assistants advice on preventing bullying of disabled children and young people and those with special educational needs (SEN).
Woodfer’s World is designed to be a core part of the school’s work on inclusion. It helps children and adults create a social and physical environment that understands, accepts and values all children. It promotes the spiritual, moral, social and cultural (SMSC) development of children within the school. To download the resources please click the link and follow the links on the document.
Bullying and autism spectrum disorders: guidance for teachers and other professionals. This resource is produced by the Anti-Bullying Alliance working in partnership with achievement for all 3As, contact a family, Mencap and the council for disabled children. It’s funded by the DfE.
Autism and bullying, a specialist module for schools and the wider children’s workforce: A PowerPoint presentation linking to the bullying and autism spectrum disorders guidance for teachers.
Bullying and mental health: guidance for teachers and other professionals. This resource is produced by the Anti-Bullying Alliance working in partnership with Achievement for All 3As, Contact a Family, Mencap and the Council for Disabled Children. It’s funded by the DfE.
Bullying and mental health in children and young people : A PowerPoint presentation linked to the Bullying and mental health guidance for teachers.
Cyberbullying and children and young people with SEN and disabilities : guidance for teachers and other professionals.
Bullying and autism spectrum disorders: a guide for school staff.
A study by Sheffield University of bullying of children with autism in secondary school.
Children and young people with learning disabilities– understanding their Mental Health. Funded by DfE and published by Young Minds.
Safe to Learn: Bullying involving children with special educational needs and disabilities.
Responding to bullying among children and young people with SEN and/or disabilities: the views and experiences of children and young people with SEN and/or disabilities.
Bullying and deaf children – a guide for schools.
Bullying and deaf children - for school staff who work with pupils with a hearing loss.
A short course booklet for promoting well-being in deaf young people – Think Right, Feel Good.
B is for bullied - the experiences of children with autism and their families.
Resources for children and young people
Easy read leaflet by Mencap - what do I do if someone I know is being bullied?
Easy read leaflet by Mencap - what to do if you are being bullied.
Easy read leaflet by Mencap - a guide for children and young people about cyber bullying.
A booklet for deaf children about bullying produced by NDCS - don’t put up with it.
See It, Stop It! - a resource for deaf young people about bullying.
Internet safety poster by Cerebra.
Bullying incident diary- keeping a record about the bullying you've experienced can be really helpful when you are talking to your teacher. Schools will need as much information as possible so they can investigate and resolve the situation.
Resources for parents and carers
A guide to dealing with bullying: for parents of disabled children.
Information handout - bullying involving children with SEN.
Bullying of children with disabilities and special educational needs in schools: briefing paper for parents on the views and experiences of other parents, carers and families.
Bullying and autism - a guide for parents and carers.
Learning disabilities, autism and internet safety: a parent's guide.
Derbyshire Information, Advice and Support Service for SEND provides general information about special educational needs, one-to-one support to families and support during the assessment for an SEN Statement. For further information contact our advice line tel: 01629 533668.
National projects and websites
Contact a Family, Mencap and the National Autistic Society offer specific advice about bullying and special needs. The other organisations have useful suggestions for all children and parents plus information about positive things schools can do.